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Rescue and Aid in France

Overview

Abstract

Scope and Contents

Biographical Note

Administrative Information

Detailed Description

RG-44.01, Betty Prins-Hyatt Papers

RG-44.02, Marie Kaufman Papers



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Rescue and Aid in France, 1940-1944 | Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust

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Collection Overview

Title: Rescue and Aid in France, 1940-1944Add to your cart.View associated digital content.

Predominant Dates:1942 -- 1944

ID: RG-44/RG-44

Primary Creator: Princ-Hyatt, Betty (1940 -- 2008)

Other Creators: Kaufman, Marie (1900 -- 2008)

Extent: 1.0 Boxes

Arrangement: Materials are arranged by subject/creator, then by identifier, as assigned by the processor.

Subjects: Aid and rescue during the war, collaboration in the Holocaust, family histories, France, history, 1940 -- 1944, Holocaust in France, Rescue and aid in France, 1940 -- 1944, Vichy France, 1940 -- 1942

Languages: French, German, English

Abstract

This record group contains two correlated collections dealing with the Jewish experience in Vichy France. By far these collections are family histories. The documents reflect the dichotomy of complicity on the part of the French collaborating authorities on one side and the rescue and aid rendered by the French Resistance, as well as ordinary people, on the other.

Scope and Contents of the Materials

This record group comprised two collections, namely RG-44.01, Betty Prins-Hyatt Papers and RG-44.02, Marie Kaufman Papers. Both collections are subdivided on the sub-collections with regard to the type of documents and periodization.

Collection Historical Note

Both collections share historic commonalities related to the experience of Jewish refugees to France during the Holocaust. Complicity of the French collaborating authorities in the Holocaust has been for long minimized by postwar French society. Only recently this theme has become public and the subject of discussion. The role of French gendarmerie, formally independent until 1942, and later incorporated into the auxiliary to the German police and security forces was crucial in the implementation of the Final Solution in France.

In theory, measures of the Vichy government applied to all of France. However, only in unoccupied France could the new government actually govern autonomously. Officially neutral, Vichy France collaborated closely with Germany. Under Petain and Laval, the Vichy government followed a nationalist and “pre-French Revolutionary” agenda, replacing the ideals of “liberty, equality, and fraternity” with “work, family, and country.”

In March 1941, the Vichy government created a central agency, the General Commissariat for Jewish Affairs, to coordinate anti-Jewish legislation and policy. Anxious to ensure that material goods and assets confiscated from the Jewish population did not fall into German hands, the Laval government, in July 1941, instituted an extensive program of "Aryanization," appropriating Jewish-owned property for the French state. Aryanization left most Jews in France destitute, affecting foreign Jews particularly severely. French authorities interned thousands of Jews under deplorable conditions in French-administered detention camps -- Gurs, Saint-Cyprien, Rivesaltes, Le Vernet, and Les Milles -- where at least 3,000 individuals died during the war years.

Deportations of Jews from France in the summer and fall of 1942 spurred significant protest within the Catholic Church, a mainstay of the Petain regime, and among the general population. The brutal nature of the roundups, such as the actions and incarceration in the Velodrome d'Hiver, stirred public anger. The initial decision to separate children from their families during the deportation process met with particular criticism.

The calculated strategy of the Vichy administration to collaborate with German deportation efforts in order to gain more independence for unoccupied France had failed. The Petain government's willingness to surrender foreign Jews in hopes of shielding French Jewish nationals had increasingly obligated Vichy officials to fill all deportation quotas demanded by German authorities, who did not concern themselves with the niceties of nationality and citizenship.

The documents of these collections corroborate division in French society. It was a moral challenge for French people to see the foreign Jews as their neighbors. Both family histories emphasize that rescue and aid overpowered complicity and collaboration. We, however, shall remember that it was not always the case and the number of unfortunate people perhaps exceeded those who managed to survive.

RG-44.01.01, Letter of Nathaniel Prins from prison to his French neighbor Chambron with a postscript in pencil added before the deportation to Drancy. Dated by 31 January 1943.

RG-44.01.01.01, Provenance text written by Ms. Prins-Hyatt

RG-44.01.02, Postcard with a view of Lisbon

RG-44.01.03, Postcard, Lisbon

RG-44.01.04, Letter from the Mayoral Office of Lamastre certifying that Nathan Prins after spending two months in prison was deported to Drancy in March 1943 in French.

RG-44.01.05, Esther Prins (mother of Betty Prins-Hyatt passport) issued in the Netherlands with the marks of entering and living in France in 1942.

RG-44.01.06, Nathaniel and Ester Prins wedding photograph

RG-44.01.07, Food rationing stamps on two pages

RG-44.02, Marie Kaufman Papers

The Marie Kaufman Papers collection includes photographs and documents from

RG-44.02.01, Family Documents Book 

RG-44.02.01.01, family document book

RG-44.02.01.02, records of salary 1944-1946

RG-44.02.01.03, Marriage License

RG-44.02.01.04, Marriage certificate

RG-44.02.01.05, draft card for the military

RG-44.02.01.06, Certificate of military position

RG-44.02.01.07, translation of the declaration concerning the reclamation of French citizenship

RG-44.02.01.08, Certificate-of-residence

RG-44.02.01.09, correspondences from Krakow to Paris

RG-44.02.02, Additional documents

RG-44.02.02.01, California Driver License

RG-44.02.02.02, California-Driver-License-back

RG-44.02.02.03, Certificate of Naturalization

RG-44.02.02.04, Declaration-Concerning-the-Reclamation-of-the-French-Citizenship-Helene-Kaufman

RG-44.02.02.05, Declaration-Concerning-the-Reclamation-of-the-French-Citizenship-Helene-Kaufman-back

RG-44.02.02.06, Declaration-Concerning-the-Reclamation-of-the-French-Citizenship-Marie-Kaufman

RG-44.02.02.07, Declaration-Concerning-the-Reclamation-of-the-French-Citizenship-Marie-Kaufman-back

RG-44.02.02.08, Graduation-photo

RG-44.02.02.09, ID-card-Michel-Kaufman

RG-44.02.02.10, ID-card-Michel-Kaufman-exterior

RG-44.02.02.11, Naturalization-certificate-of-Dobra-Kaufman

RG-44.02.02.12, Naturalization-certificate-of-Michel-Kaufman

RG-44.02.02.13, Permit-to-Reenter-the-United-States

RG-44.02.02.14, Photograph-of-Abram-Zajdner

RG-44.02.02.15, Photograph-of-Abram-Zajdner-back

RG-44.02.02.16, Photograph-of-Fannie-and-Berre-Moskowitz

RG-44.02.02.17, Photograph-of-Fannie-and-Berre-Moskowitz-back

RG-44.02.02.18, Photograph-of-Marinette-in-school

RG-44.02.02.19, Photograph-of-Marinette-in-school-back

RG-44.02.02.20, Photograph-of-Rozenberg-family-2

RG-44.02.02.21, Photograph-of-Rozenberg-family-3

RG-44.02.02.22, Photograph-of-Rozenberg-family-4

RG-44.02.02.23, Photograph-of-Rozenberg-family-5

RG-44.02.02.24, Photograph-of-Wolf-and-Rose-Moskovitch,-Berre-and-Fanni-Moskovitch,-Henri-and-Jeanette-Moraud

RG-44.02.02.25, Photograph-of-Wolf-and-Rose-Moskovitch,-Berre-and-Fanni-Moskovitch,-Henri-and-Jeanette-Moraud-back

RG-44.02.02.26, Receipt voucher of Declaration Concerning the Reclamation of the French Citizenship

RG-44.02.02.27, Regiment-of-Foreign-Volunteers-certificate

RG-44.02.02.28, Regiment-of-Foreign-Volunteers-certificate-back

RG-44.02.02.29, Translation-of-the-Declaration-Concerning-the-Reclamation-of-the-French-Citizenship

RG-44.02.02.30, Translation-of-the-Declaration-Concerning-the-Reclamation-of-the-French-Citizenship-back

RG-44.02.02.31, Personnel-register

RG-44.02.02.32, Photograph-of-Rozenberg-family-on-my-father's-(Michel)-mother's-side-(Hinda Rozenberg)

RG-44.02.03, Photographs

RG-44.02.03.01, 1949-classroom

RG-44.02.03.02, Abraham-Zaidner-and-Fenya-Wax

RG-44.02.03.03, Abram-Zadjner-in-1935-in-front-of-portraits-and-sculpture

RG-44.02.03.04, Abram-Zadjner-painting-violinist

RG-44.02.03.05, Abram-Zadjner-sculptures-by-the-river

RG-44.02.03.06, Adlerblum-and-Moskowitz-family-photo

RG-44.02.03.07, Anna-and-Betszaler

RG-44.02.03.08, Anna-at-Ball-in-Paris

RG-44.02.03.09, Anna-in-Kalicz

RG-44.02.03.10, Anna-in-Kalicz-in-field

RG-44.02.03.11, Anna-in-park-in-Busko

RG-44.02.03.12, Armand-Marinette-Helene-and-Thimory

RG-44.02.03.13, Armant-Zadjner-and-Marie-Moszkowiez

RG-44.02.03.14, boy-drawing-a-portrait-of-another-man

RG-44.02.03.15, Bronka-and-two-other-girls-in-photo

RG-44.02.03.16, Christiane-Alary-daughter-of-et-Ernest-et-and-Paule-Alary

RG-44.02.03.17, Family-Photo

RG-44.02.03.18, Family-photo-on-Papa's-side

RG-44.02.03.19, family-photo-parents-and-two-girls-one-holding-ball

RG-44.02.03.20, family-photo-postcard-of-wolf

RG-44.02.03.21, Fruma-Paula's-Daughter

RG-44.02.03.22, Gaston-and-Helene-Andrieu

RG-44.02.03.23, Grandparents-with-Michel-and-Fela-Kaufman

RG-44.02.03.24, Helene-Anna-Abrahm-and-Paula-family-photo

RG-44.02.03.25, Hiline-Kaufman-Marie's-sister

RG-44.02.03.26, Marie-Kaufman-before-America

RG-44.02.03.27, Marie-Pierrot-Madeleine-et-Jeannot-Andrieu

RG-44.02.03.28, Marie-Zadjner-Kalinski

RG-44.02.03.29, Marinette-and-Helen-Kaufman

RG-44.02.03.30, Michel-Kaufman-photo-with-three-others

RG-44.02.03.31, Papa-and-friend-in-paris

RG-44.02.03.32, Paris-Passport-Shot

RG-44.02.03.33, Passport-photo-1950

RG-44.02.03.34, photo-of-Anna-in-Gordonia-organization

RG-44.02.03.35, Photo-of-Anna's-sister

RG-44.02.03.36, photo-of-Anna's-Stepfather-Stepsister-and-Mother

RG-44.02.03.37, photo-of-boy-in-dress-jacket

RG-44.02.03.38, photo-of-Ernest-and-Paule

RG-44.02.03.39, Photo-of-Great-Grandmother-on Papa's-Side

RG-44.02.03.40, photo-of-group-of-women-with-flag-with-a-boat-on-it

RG-44.02.03.41, photo-of-Henri's-parents

RG-44.02.03.42, photo-of-M.-Cornus

RG-44.02.03.43, photo-of-man-in-sweater-and-dress-shirt

RG-44.02.03.44, photo-of-Marie-Kaufman-at-8-months

RG-44.02.03.45, photo-of-mother-and-Anna

RG-44.02.03.46, photo-of-rows-of-men-and-women

RG-44.02.03.47, photo-of-three-people-November-20-1934

RG-44.02.03.48, photo-of-three-women-Feb-2-1933

RG-44.02.03.49, six-people-around-a-hebrew-tombstone

RG-44.02.03.50, Tanta-Fela-in-Poland

RG-44.02.03.51, Tante-Fela-at-18

RG-44.02.03.52, three-children-in-yard-in-front-of-a-tree

RG-44.02.03.53, three-people-around-hebrew-tombstone

RG-44.02.03.54, Two-adults-and-two-childeren-in-yard

RG-44.02.03.55, two-children-one-on-a-rocking-horse

RG-44.02.03.56, two-girls-with-arms-around-each-other

RG-44.02.03.57, Tzvi-Wolf-and-Anna

RG-44.02.03.58, woman-in-bathingsuit

RG-44.02.03.59, woman-next-to-vase-of-flowers

RG-44.02.03.60, woman-walking-on-the-street-with-a-little-girl

Biographical Note

The Princ family fled Belgium in May 1940. They had entry passages to Surinam, a Dutch Protectorate. However this plan did not materialize and the family got stranded in Vichy France in the village of Lamastre (southeast France). The French Resistance supplied Nathaniel Prins, the father, with false papers, allowing him to work. However, soon after he was arrested by the Vichy police for living under false identity.

The French neighbors helped collected money for his release. Nathaniel Princ was freed from prison, however on very same day he was arrested again on the ground of being Jewish. He was sent to Drancy transit camp in Paris. From there he was deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau.

Subject/Index Terms

Aid and rescue during the war
collaboration in the Holocaust
family histories
France, history, 1940 -- 1944
Holocaust in France
Rescue and aid in France, 1940 -- 1944
Vichy France, 1940 -- 1942

Administrative Information

Repository: Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust

Access Restrictions:

No restrictions

Copyrighted materials, credits to and references to the Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust are required

Digital copies might be available upon request

Use Restrictions: Copyrighted materials


Box and Folder Listing


Browse by Sub-Collection:

[Sub-Collection 1: RG-44.01, Betty Prins-Hyatt Papers, 1920s --1945],
[Sub-Collection 2: RG-44.02, Marie Kaufman Papers, 1920s --1945],
[All]

Sub-Collection 1: RG-44.01, Betty Prins-Hyatt Papers, 1920s --1945Add to your cart.
This collection contains official document and family photographs related to the wartime experience in Belgium and France in 1940 – 1945
Subject/Index Terms:
Rescue and aid in France, 1940 -- 1944
Rescue and aid in the Holocaust
Flight from Nazi-occupied territories
Lisbon (Portugal)
Passports, Belgian
family photographs
Creators:
Princ-Hyatt, Betty (1940 -- 2008)
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 1: Letter of Nathaniel Prins from prison dated 31 January 1943, 31 January 1943Add to your cart.View associated digital content.
A letter from Nathaniel Prins from prison to his French neighbor Chambron with a postscript in pencil added before his deportation to Drancy.  The letter is dated 31 January 1943.
Subject/Index Terms:
Prins, Nathaniel
Prins-Hyatt, Betty
Personal correspondence
Drancy internment camp (Paris, France)
Vichy France, 1940 -- 1942
Lamastre, France
Dutch refugees
Gestapo (Nazi German Secret political police)
Passports, Belgian
Rescue and aid in France, 1940 -- 1944
Rescue and aid in the Holocaust
family histories
Creators:
Prins, Nathaniel
Prins-Hyatt, Betty
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 2: Provenance text written by Ms. Prins-HyattAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.
A provenance text written by Ms. Betty Prins-Hyatt.  The text is typed in English.
Subject/Index Terms:
Flight from Nazi-occupied territories
Passports, Belgian
Rescue and aid in France, 1940 -- 1944
Rescue and aid in the Holocaust
family histories
Drancy internment camp (Paris, France)
Dutch refugees
Gestapo (Nazi German Secret political police)
Lamastre, France
Prins, Nathaniel
Prins-Hyatt, Betty
Vichy France, 1940 -- 1942
Creators:
Prins-Hyatt, Betty
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 3: Postcard with a view of LisbonAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.
A postcard depicting a view of Lisbon, Portugal.
Subject/Index Terms:
postcards
Personal correspondence
Lisbon (Portugal)
family histories
Dutch refugees
Flight from Nazi-occupied territories
Prins, Nathaniel
Prins-Hyatt, Betty
Creators:
Prins-Hyatt, Betty
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 4: Postcard, LisbonAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.
A postcard depicting a building in Lisbon, Portugal.
Subject/Index Terms:
postcards
Personal correspondence
Flight from Nazi-occupied territories
Lisbon (Portugal)
Rescue and aid in France, 1940 -- 1944
Rescue and aid in the Holocaust
family histories
Dutch refugees
Prins, Nathaniel
Prins-Hyatt, Betty
Creators:
Prins-Hyatt, Betty
Prins, Nathaniel
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 5: Letter from mayoral office of Lamastre cetifying arrest and deporation of Nathan PrinsAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.
A letter from the mayoral office of Lamastre certifying that Nathaniel Prins, after spending two months in prison, was deported to Drancy in March 1943.  The letter is typed in French.
Subject/Index Terms:
Drancy internment camp (Paris, France)
Dutch refugees
official correspondence
Gestapo (Nazi German Secret political police)
Lamastre, France
Prins, Nathaniel
Vichy France, 1940 -- 1942
Deportation of Danish Jews
Deportation to concentration camps
family histories
Creators:
Prins-Hyatt, Betty
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 6: Betty Prins-Hyatt mother passportAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.
The passport of Esther Prins, the wife of Nathaniel Prins and mother to Betty Prins-Hyatt.  The passport was issued in the Netherlands with the marks of entering and living in France in 1942.
Subject/Index Terms:
Prins, Esther
Prins-Hyatt, Betty
Flight from Nazi-occupied territories
Rescue and aid in France, 1940 -- 1944
Rescue and aid in the Holocaust
family histories
Passport photograph
Dutch refugees
Creators:
Prins-Hyatt, Betty
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 7: wedding photograph, Nathaniel Prins and Esther Prins, the parents of Betty Prins-HyattAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.
The wedding photograph of Esther and Nathaniel Prins, the parents of Betty Prins-Hyatt.
Subject/Index Terms:
Prins, Nathaniel
Prins, Esther
family histories
family photographs
Dutch refugees
Prins-Hyatt, Betty
Creators:
Prins-Hyatt, Betty
Document/Artifact of Item-Level 8: Food rationing stampsAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.
Food rationing stamps on two pages.
Subject/Index Terms:
Flight from Nazi-occupied territories
Rescue and aid in France, 1940 -- 1944
Rescue and aid in the Holocaust
family histories
Family history documents
Dutch refugees
Lamastre, France
Prins, Nathaniel
Prins, Esther
Prins-Hyatt, Betty
Vichy France, 1940 -- 1942
Creators:
Prins-Hyatt, Betty

Browse by Sub-Collection:

[Sub-Collection 1: RG-44.01, Betty Prins-Hyatt Papers, 1920s --1945],
[Sub-Collection 2: RG-44.02, Marie Kaufman Papers, 1920s --1945],
[All]


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